Apr 20, (a) KITAB-UL-HIND was written by AL-BIRUNI in Arabic language KITAB-UL- HIND is simple and lucid and a voluminous text divided into 80 chapters on. Sep 30, Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic. Kitab Tarikh Al-Hind and Aims of Writing it. Al-Biruni’s Kitab-ul-Hind is simple and lucid. It is divided. were incorporated in Mahmud’s Indian army; and Al- beruni—what Geography. Kitab-almanshurdt. marching to Hind or India proper we start from the.

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On the contrarydirect observation is rare in the Kitab al-Hind. According to their belief, there is no other country on earth but theirs, no other race of man but theirs, and no created beings besides them have any knowledge or science whatsoever.

Nind Al-Beruni was born outside the city in a suburban area he was given epithet of Al-Beruni. He lived during the Islamic Golden Agein which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of kitqb Islamic religion.

Sanskrit works on sciences had been translated into Arabic from the eighth century onwards. He quotes Vishnu Purana to elucidate the Hindu traditions of a large number of hells, of their qualities and their names and the special hell for each kind of sin.

GhazniGhaznavid Empire modern-day Afghanistan. Chorasmian, the original Iranian language of Chorasmia, is attested at two stages of its development.

SachauAlberuni’s India: Along with those methods, Biruni went so far as to describe instruments that go along with kutab of those areas as well. Therefore, the word Kashmir here stands for the Kashmir Valley.

Through The Eyes Of Travellers

Some customs described by Alberuni are the following: Also he describe how he interacted with Kashmir by giving account of circulation of written documents between the conquered and unconquered Kashmir world. Astronomers by century CE AD. Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghazni, the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Precisely such a check was provided to the Hindu society, in the eleventh century, by an Iranian Muslim scholar, Al-Biruni, who was perhaps a hostage at the court of Mahmud of Ghazani.

In his description of Sijzi’s astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth. He also mentions about Polygamy in his book and writes that some Hindus were of the view that the number of wives depends on the caste, that a Brahman could take four wives, a Kshatriya three, a Vaisya two and a Sudra one accordingly.


Additionally, he chronicled stories of Indian rulers and told of how they ruled over their people with their beneficial actions and acted in the interests of the nation. There existed a flow of written documents — books, calendars and letters? His book digs deep into Hindu religion, science, literature, philosophy, social organization, geography, astronomy, life, customs, festivals etc.

The book does not limit itself to tedious records of battle because Al-Biruni found the social culture to be more important. A Persian by birth, a rationalist in disposition, this contemporary of Avicenna and Alhazen not only u history, philosophy, and geography in depth, but wrote one of the most comprehensive Muslim astronomical treatises, the Qanun Al-Masu’di. In a sense, the kitba contributed to create sultans’ best image at the time.

Robarts — University of Toronto. Byzantine science Chinese astronomy Mitab European science Indian astronomy. International Journal of Sciences.

Al-Beruni was a Muslim of Iranian origin and was a great linguist and a prolific writer. According to Akbar S. Al-Biruni adopted a distinctive structure in each chapter, beginning with a question, following this up with a description based on Sanskrit traditions, and concluding the chapter with ,itab comparison with other cultures. I heard from people of Multan that there is no monsoon season [in Multan], as there is in the remote northern parts.

The most prominent of both modern and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the question of the moving of the earth, and tried to refute it. For the uneducated class, Al-Biruni finds most of their views on the concept of God are simply abominable. He sums up the Hindu definition of God in the following words: Moreover, Hindus in 11th century India had suffered through waves of destructive attacks on many of its cities, and Islamic armies had taken numerous Hindu slaves to Persia which, claimed Al-Biruni, contributed to Hindus becoming suspicious of all foreigners, not just Muslims.

Ihnd describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. He condemns the hypocrisy of Brahmin Scholars, who inspite of knowing the scientific explanation of various natural phenomenon preferred to mislead the masses and keep them steeped in ignorance and supersitious. Journal of Near Eastern Studies.


He had no direct knowledge of Greek but he was well acquainted with the works of Plato and other Greek masters. Criticisms To Al-Beruni the Hindus were excellent philosophers, good mathematicians and astronomers, though [out of a certain self-confidence] he believes himself to be superior to them, and disdains to be put on a level with them.

His writing indicates a modern scientific methodology and a comparative approach. He treated religions objectively, striving to understand them on their own terms rather than trying to prove them wrong. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Therefore, a distinction between the conquered and unconquered world is needed in order to assess the depth of his information as well as the methodology he employed for gathering information.

From the 8th c.


Mitab explains the origin of the caste system as the work of Kings of ancient period and says that if a new order of things in political or social life is introduced by a strong-minded individual and supported aal religious sanction, it gradually turns into the accepted social norm. During this time he wrote his study of India, finishing it around According to Hindu belief, the spirits or the soul do not differ from each other in substance but have an identical nature.

Sachau, 67 class of people called Hadi, Doma DombaChandala and Badhatau are also mentioned as apart from any guild or caste and generally occupied with dirty work like manual scavenging and cleaning. He also gives accounts of principal festivals. The question ktab whether he was able to cross the borders of the Ghaznavid realm should be also examined in a more developed study that would consider the actual relationship between Muslims and Indians at that period.

You are commenting hiind your WordPress. He must have had access to such literature and also contact with learned pundits who may have similarly been held hostage at Ghazani.

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