Taxonomic Notes: Hordeum marinum Huds. is a tertiary wild relative of Barley, H. vulgare L. (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program ). Differs from Hordeum leporinum and Hordeum glaucum in that the junction of the with line drawing: Background and Aims Hordeum marinum. is a species complex that includes the diploid subspecies marinum and both diploid and tetraploid.
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The barley genome and its relationship with the wheat genomes. AAG 5which produced the clearest pattern of signals, was chosen as the diagnostic probe for identifying chromosomes and for analysing the physical mapping of the set of probes in multiple-target in situ experiments Fig. Journal of Experimental Botany.
Atlas c Atlas of gordeum European vascular plants north of the Tropic of Cancer. Breaking with what became a long-standing assumption of autopolyploid origin, recent molecular phylogenetic analyses using single nuclear markers seem to indicate that tetraploids originated by hybridization between a diploid form of gussoneanum and another diploid progenitor. Homologies were established among chromosomes of the different accessions.
World Distribution Mediterranean-Atlantic element; also in C. Ecology An annual of barish places by the sea, on the trampled margins of dried-up pools and ditches in grazing marshes, on tracks and sea walls, and in the uppermost parts of saltmarshes; also, uordeum locally, beside salt-treated roads inland.
With respect to 5SrDNA, the common loci present in the diploid forms chromosomes 6 and 7 were probably present in their Xa genome common ancestor. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Although it cannot be ruled out that, for example, translocations or inversions have contributed to the different distributions of repetitive DNA sequences in H. Chromosome identification and karyotype analysis of two diploid accessions of gussoneanum BCC and GRA was performed by combining the physical patterns obtained with the same probes used to characterize marinum Fig.
Another major disagreement concerns the auto- or allopolyploid origin of the tetraploids. A practical application of the present findings is the detection of individual H. The relationships within this group of waterlogging-tolerant barleys have remained unclear. The 45SrDNA probe hybridized with two pairs of chromosomes, providing signals of different intensity. On the origin of the marinuj species Hordeum capense and H.
The other pair of 5SrDNA signals was detected in a distal position on the long arm of the smaller and very metacentric chromosome pair. It was thus chosen as the diagnostic probe for identifying chromosomes in multiple target experiments Fig.
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As in the marinum accessions, only the satellitized chromosome pair carried 45SrDNA repeats. The probe labelling procedures and FISH conditions were the same as those described in earlier work de Bustos et al. This is thought to be due to the rebuilding of sea defences, infilling of pools and ditches, the wholesale conversion of coastal grazing marshes to arable land, and, locally, the cessation of grazing. The usefulness of SSR sequences as chromosomal markers revealed by ND-FISH in different species, including several members of the tribe Triticeaehas been reported previously by our group Cuadrado et al.
Phylogeny of two tetraploid Hordeum species, H. Although no alteration in the morphology or stability of repetitive DNA clusters in the chromosomes donated by gussoneanum appears to have occurred after the polyploidization process, presumably hordehm a maronum of the relatively recent formation of allotetraploids, it cannot be ruled out that the non- gussoneanum subgenome was subject to different trends during the adaptive process following interspecific hybridization.
Hordeum marinum ssp. gussoneanum Calflora
For Permissions, please email: The distribution pattern of the set of repetitive DNA sequences, plus chromosome morphology, helped establish putative homologies among chromosomes assigned the same number in the subspecies of H. Note that signals observed with the ribosomal probes clearly shown in Fig.
With the exception of AG 10ACT 5 and ATC 5 which were ineffective as chromosome markersthe probes used in the present work provided a saturated physical map of H. Evolutionary trends of different repetitive DNA sequences during speciation in genus Secale. Although individual chromosome hprdeum was very difficult with this probe, greater similarities were seen in the pattern of distribution of pAs1 among accessions BCC and GRA than between either of these accessions and accession GRA compare Fig.
Note that the PDF version is the booklet as published, whereas the Excel spreadsheet incorporates subsequent corrections. It may also be that related forms of the diploid accessions analysed were parentals and underwent significant genomic and chromosomal changes during the generations coming soon after polyploidization. The chromosomal distribution revealed by pAs1 was coincident with that seen for diploid H.
This agrees with the high genetic variability of the DNA sequences revealed within marinum. Assuming a monophyletic origin for the diploid cytotypes of H. The other group of 14 chromosomes, which provided a karyotype similar to that of diploid H.
Origin of hogdeum in H. The second pair with only one 5SrDNA locus only showed visible satellites in less condensed chromosomes Fig. Analysis of the karyotypes Fig. An annual of barish places by the sea, on the trampled margins of dried-up pools and ditches in grazing marshes, on tracks and sea walls, and in the uppermost parts of saltmarshes; also, very locally, beside salt-treated roads inland.
Following the format used in previous descriptions, the chromosomes 1—7 were arranged in order of decreasing length with the satellitized chromosome at the end. Mainum of the Hordeum marinum material studied.